What is Biometric or Biometrics

Biometrics is a technology that utilizes exclusive physiological features to get the identity of a person. They really heavily on computer interfaces to identify individuals and they are commonly associated with security

There are several traits that are developed for use in biometrics in order to verify the identity of a person. The technology uses unique personal features like fingerprints, iris, and signature to establish the identity of a person.

Biometrics as a mode of identification is given preference over conventional methods such as PIN and passwords.

Why Biometric Systems are Preferred

  • Biometrics is a preferred mode of identification because the person to be identified has to be present physically.
  • The approach does not require a person to recall details such as passwords or PIN or bring any physical items because biometrics us a system that makes verifies identity by checking the authenticity of particular behavioral or physiological features of a person
  • The technology is described as an automated approach of verifying the identity of persons that are alive based on their unique characteristics

Uses of Biometrics Systems

  • Biometric systems may be for purposes of verification or identification
  • As an identification system, biometrics may be used to check the identity of an individual without his consent or awareness.
  • This is done by using cameras to scan through a crowd and utilizing technology for recognizing facial features. This information is then matched against an already established database.
  • As a verification system, biometrics may be utilized to authenticate the identity of a person. For example, a person may gain access to a secured location using a finger scan or access a bank account through a retinal scan.

How Biometrics Systems Work

For biometrics certifications to be complete there is need to compare registered biometric samples with newly acquired biometric samples.

This involves three processes:

1. Capture: –  During this stage, raw biometric data is acquired through identification devices such as video cameras, retinal or fingerprint scanners

2. Process: – This stage involves abstraction of distinguishing features from the captured raw data sample before converting it to generate a processed identifier biometrics record in mathematical form

3. Enroll: – At this stage, the processed biometric record is kept in a storage device for future reference where it is used to compare samples during verification. It is advisable to maintain the sample of processed biometric because it is not possible to develop original formats of biometric samples from processed identifiers.

A verification or identification procedure can only be conducted after these three steps are complete.

Multimodal Systems of Biometrics

  • These are biometric systems that use multiple behavioral or physical features to undertake enrollment, identification or authorization.
  • Such systems are used in access controls, exit or entrance points on borders, network security etc.
  • Multimodal systems serve as a way of reducing the rates of false matching or non-matching, frustrating efforts to trick biometric systems and availing an alternative way to enroll, identify or verify where there is inadequate data about a particular individual.