What is a Database (DB)

A database is a collection of organized data files and managed as a single unit and that controlled database is known as database management systems. In simple terms, a database is a tool that stores the data and same way you can create, modify and delete the data.

Forty years back we can find the database in only some places like laboratories and computer technologies struggled a lot to effective more efficiently. In today technology databases are universal usage in information technology industry and every day we all are using databases directly or indirectly like banking transactions, reservations, websites, etc. All this process are recorded and processed in the database.

Database in today information system environment

Think how the world would be without database servers, the efforts of scientists made us store the data easily. Today’s computers are very fast with amazing performances. The data has become essential in every organization, for example, the corporate resources like financial data, human resource, inventory, personnel etc. The corporate is required to store the data and manage it effectively in the high competitive world.

In addition to the development of database management systems, it has some disadvantages.

  1. The data stored in different types of files and different formats.
  2. It’s difficult to understand about the file design and it may result to unnecessary data with files.
  3. There will be a chance of duplication of data.
  4. It is difficult to rebuild the files if any software or hardware failures occur.
  5. Data was not secure, it may hack or theft by inside or outside the organization.


1. Relational Databases: – I contain tables that hold rows and columns. It allows complex data relations, constraints integration, ad hoc queries and some more features.

2. Hierarchical databases: – The files on a disk are stored in the form hierarchy, e.g. corporate charts, relationship trees etc.

3. Network databases: – This type of database contains nodes and connects through links, it stores the network data on internet, e.g. website content.

4. Object database: – In modern information technology, programming languages are objected oriented. It helps to integrate the programming languages in the databases.

5. Dimensional databases: – The data is stored in hyper-cubes slightly than tables like in relational databases.

6. Document-oriented databases: – It helps to store the data that related to document management systems. e.g. building the website.


Data is one of the important components of information system and organizations become more dependent on the database to store their data for running their business successfully.